Citizenship by Investment: What Countries Offer Best Conditions for Dual Citizenship?

Citizenship by Investment

Citizenship by investment is a method of becoming a legal citizen in a certain country by obtaining citizenship via making an investment or purchasing real estate in the country. The process includes due diligence at different levels like criminal record checks, funds source verification, etc. It’s vital to look for other ways to obtain citizenship in another country if you are an investor who is looking on maximizing your investments. Here is a list of countries around the world where you can get this type of citizenship.

St. Kitts and Nevis

St. Kitts and Nevis citizenship by investment program is established in 1984 and is one of the oldest programs of this type in the world. It grants citizens a passport and citizenship through a series of donations and investments in real estate. Some of the requirements to obtain St. Kitts citizenship by investment is to make a donation of a minimum of $150K in the Sustainable Growth Fund – SGF or $400K in real estate, plus due diligence and government-related fees. An additional fee of $20K might be needed for each sibling or $10K for each additional dependent. The applicant must be 18 years of age or older to be eligible to apply and the processing time will take around three to six months. Some of the key benefits you can enjoy after becoming a St. Kitt and Nevis citizen the visa-free travel to 157 countries, citizenship by descent for future generations, no minimum stay required, and dual citizenship allowed by the nation.


Malta is another country where you can obtain dual citizenship if you want to build a business in a European country and expand your business ventures, establish contacts with European partners or attend meetings. With EU citizenship, you don’t need to waste money and time on visa processing or bank transfers since all will be faster. This will allow you to study in a European university, work after graduation, stay in the country or find a good job. The Maltese Citizenship by Naturalisation for Exceptional Services by Direct Investment is one of the programs that will assist you in the application process of becoming a citizen in the country. After becoming a citizen, you can travel visa-free in 183 countries. The program is great for talented individuals who can contribute to the economic growth of the country. Investors who have second citizenship in Malta will receive access to the EU medical system and tax incentives or the opportunity to join a tax jurisdiction. 


Austria is another country in Europe that has citizenship by investment programs. It offers the program to foreign nationals, however, the application process differs from other countries’ processes. You will need to actively invest in the Austrian economy instead of participating in a passive investor visa program. However, investing in real estate or government bonds does not necessarily mean you’ll get the golden visa. After you obtain the citizenship, you are free to travel without a visa or visa on arrival in 189 countries including Hong Kong, Canada, and Europe’s Schengen Area.

Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda has one of the best citizenship by investment programs in the Caribbean region. The passport will provide you visa-free entry to 151 destinations and it’s definitely a beautiful place to own a second home. Obtaining a second passport is easier than in the European countries and the minimum investment threshold is $100K-$150K. The process usually takes from two to six months and you can choose one of the options on how and where to make your investment. It can be in a non-refundable state contribution, investment in business and real estate, or securities. You’ll need to stay in the country 5 days within 5 years. But let’s be honest, who wouldn’t like to stay in the Caribbean?

Citizenship by Investment


Becoming a citizen by investment is possible in Montenegro as well. This is a country in Europe that is not yet part of the European Union. A dual passport will allow you to stay up to 90 days in a row in every European country, however, you will not be eligible to work in the EU. On the other hand, you can visit 120 countries without a visa, but you’ll need a visa to visit Ireland and UK. The citizens of Montenegro can apply for an E-2 business visa to the USA which is an entry and residence in the country for the investor and their entire family. The tax system in the country is in favor of the citizens since there is a 9% income and dividend tax, 3% inheritance tax, and up to 1% real estate tax. The real estate in Montenegro is one of the most prosperous in the region and the investor program offers the same opportunities as the Vanuatu program, with less costs.

This article was originally published on April 26, 2022

The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of The World Financial Review.